When it comes to naming, everything.
Nightclubs and phones can share the same abstract characteristics, so they can share the same name. A nightclub can be stylish, as can a phone. They can both be friendly or alluring or opulent or minimalistic. A trademarked name that suggests any of these qualities in a nightclub will do the same for a phone.
This works because trademarks act like adjectives (e.g. Bounty®) that modify nouns (e.g. paper towels). An adjective retains its essential meaning even when modifying different nouns: A clear window, a clear path, a clear thought. (Technically speaking, trademarks are really not adjectives but "attributive modifiers" as Geoff Pullum of Language Log pointed out.)
Homonymous brands put into practice this principle of persistent meaning. The names Microsoft Excel and Hyundai Excel imply performance. Edge tennis rackets and Edge shaving gel are both edgy. Anything called Venus is for women: razors, phones, emollient, etc.
This phenomenon forms the basis for my favorite creative naming technique:
The cloaked brief
A cloaked brief is ostensibly for a product different than the real one, but shares the same desired brand attributes. The idea is to name something else.
Instead of briefing my creative team on our client's hot, new phone, I'll brief them on a hot, new nightclub.
There are, in fact, cell phones and nightclubs named the same. Geeksugar noticed and made a quiz of it; many quizzes, actually, each based on the similarity between cell phone names and the names of energy drinks, 80's TV shows, ladies' razors, Hitchcock films, Britney songs, perfumes and chewing gum.
I've found cloaked briefings effective for naming both companies and products. Done well, they can inspire and energize "creatives" more than straightforward approaches. A detailed and colorful cloaked briefing enables a namer to suspend disbelief. It immerses them in the lie.
Cloaked briefings will:
- Inspire strategically-targeted creativity in you and your team
- Accelerate generation of differentiated and relevant names en masse
- Increase the likelihood of securing trademark registration because the names are borne of divergent, out-of-category thinking
- Establish the key strategic, distinguishing attributes of the thing you are naming (e.g. a mobile phone that's stylish and friendly)
- Brainstorm categories of other things that embody those attributes (e.g. nightclubs, spas, concierge services)
- Pick a category that's unexpected and interesting (e.g. nightclubs)
- Outline a naming brief based on an imaginary yet credible product from that category. The more attributes the imaginary product has in common with the real one, the better. (e.g. name a nightclub in LA that lavishes its guests with attentive service)
Here's an example from my own experience: On an embedded-technology project, the client said their product will make computers so much more powerful, vibrant and useful that people would be wowed by the experience. Therefore, the new technology name should be as remarkable as the devices that would be powered by it.
How do you inspire remarkable names? Name something remarkable.
A member of my team came up with the brilliant cloaked creative direction to name a remarkable new circus. It would have exactly six of the "World's Greatest" people in it: The world's greatest acrobat, world's greatest magician, world's greatest contortionist, etc. (the number six referred to the six capabilities of our client's product). Every performance would leave spectators agog. Cirque du Soleil would seem lifeless in comparison.
Naming a circus troupe instead of technology? That's like comparing apples and orangutans.
But it worked.
The creative results of the exercise were astonishing; dozens and dozens of names I had never seen on any list made their debut. Having worked on over a thousand naming assignments, that's remarkable indeed.
The names were not just creative, they were also relevant and strategic because they elicited the visceral awe and wonder that defined the brand.
The circus direction was effective because circuses are intrinsically spectacular.
Cloaking is helpful for naming research, too. Asking respondents to rank candidate names against attributes in a cloaked category (instead of the actual product category) can eliminate category bias and increase participants' comfort with differentiated creative. So if you're testing names for a fast microprocessor, tell respondents they are names for race cars or jet engines.
I discuss this and other name research techniques in Decisions, decisions: How to research brand names.
For your next creative naming project, I encourage you to give cloaked briefings and cloaked research a shot.
I'd love to hear back if you've tried this approach and what kind of results you've seen.